Despite its long history as a battleground for many of the era’s most powerful empires, the Jewish people maintained their distinct sense of identity and connection with the Land of Israel.
Coins from 135-104 BCE that translate to. “Yehohanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.”
740 BCE: The Kingdom of Israel is captured by the Assyrians and destroyed, majority of Jews exiled.
A depiction of King Sennacherib, and his men, invading Judah.
586 BCE: The Kingdom of Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem & First Temple destroyed; majority of Jews exiled.
A painting by David Roberts depicting the destruction of Jerusalem.
538-142 BCE: Persian and Hellenistic periods of rule
A mosaic from the fourth century BCE depicting Judean identity.
538-515 BCE: Many Jews return from Babylonia to Israel; Temple rebuilt.
332 BCE: Land conquered by Alexander the Great; followed by Hellenistic rule.
An image depicting Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king, Darius III.
166-160 BCE: Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple
An image depicting the Maccabees versus the Romans.
142-63 BCE: Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.
A coin of Antigonus from 40-37 BCE.
63 BCE: Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey the Great.
A marble statue of Pompey the Great.
63 BCE-313 CE: Roman rule
A depiction of an attack against the Jews under Roman rule.