Biblical Era – Assyrian Captivity and Babylonian Exile

Despite its long history as a battleground for many of the era’s most powerful empires, the Jewish people maintained their distinct sense of identity and connection with the Land of Israel.

Coins from 135-104 BCE that translate to. “Yehohanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.”


740 BCE: The Kingdom of Israel is captured by the Assyrians and destroyed, majority of Jews exiled.

 A depiction of King Sennacherib, and his men, invading Judah.

586 BCE: The Kingdom of Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem & First Temple destroyed; majority of Jews exiled.

 A painting by David Roberts depicting the destruction of Jerusalem.

538-142 BCE: Persian and Hellenistic periods of rule

A mosaic from the fourth century BCE depicting Judean identity.

538-515 BCE: Many Jews return from Babylonia to Israel; Temple rebuilt.

332 BCE: Land conquered by Alexander the Great; followed by Hellenistic rule.

An image depicting Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king, Darius III.

166-160 BCE: Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple

An image depicting the Maccabees versus the Romans.

142-63 BCE: Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.

A coin of Antigonus from 40-37 BCE.

63 BCE: Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey the Great.

A marble statue of Pompey the Great.

63 BCE-313 CE: Roman rule

A depiction of an attack against the Jews under Roman rule.

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