The Common Era: Medieval

A French manuscript from the 13th century detailing the siege of Jerusalem in 1099.

Throughout this period, numerous empires conquered and subsequently ruled the land. They occupied many holy sites, and the land was the center of successive conflicts between mainly Christian and Muslim groups, most commonly known as the Crusades.

636-1099 Arab rule

A depiction of Caliph Umar entering Jerusalem.

691 On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik.

Photograph of the Dome of the Rock.

1099-1291 Crusader domination (Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)

Depiction of the First Crusade.

1291-1516 The rule of the Mamluk Sultanate

1160 David Alroy led a Jewish uprising in Upper Mesopotamia that aimed to reconquer the promised land

1210-11 The ‘Aliyah of the 300 Rabbis’ describes the immigration of Jewish-French scholars, their relatives, and followers to the Holy Land during this period. 

1267 After fleeing persecution in Europe, Catalan Rabbi & Scholar Nachmanides travelled to Jerusalem where he established a synagogue in the Old City, known today as the Ramban Synagogue

A depiction of Nachmanides.

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