Israel is subsumed into the Ottoman Empire throughout this period. Meanwhile, in Europe, the Reformation, the Wars of Religion, and the subsequent Enlightenment fundamentally change the relationship between the state, individuals, and communities, setting the stage for the rise of secular nationalism.
1492 The expulsion of Jews from Spain and its territories, and from Portugal in 1497, encouraged waves of Jewish immigration, including to Israel.
1517-1917 Ottoman rule
1648 Sabbatai Zevi claimed he would lead the Jews back to historical Israel.
1830-1840 the Perushim community, disciples of the Vilna Gaon, left Lithuania to settle in the Land of Israel in anticipation of the return of the Messiah in 1840.
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